The basic methods of Organic Farming

    Whenever we hear the term organic farming, we tend to go back to traditional operations of agriculture. However, organic farming like Greenhouse farming and commercial hydroponic farming in India are gaining a lot of popularity. Organic farming lets crops and animals thrive beautifully.

    Before moving forward, let’s understand what’s the meaning of organic farming?

    Organic farming is a modern technique that involves the cultivation of plants and animals rearing naturally. This kind of farming uses the biological materials and do not use synthetic substances for maintaining soil fertility, which ultimately helps maintain ecological balance of Earth and minimize pollution. Organic agriculture combines tradition, modernity and science to maintain a good quality of life for everyone. It is the best farming method that helps maintain and enhance soil fertility and minimize risk to human health.

    Organic farming aims at cultivating the land and raising crops keeping the soil alive and making best use of organic wastes. Now, look at the basic methods of organic farming.

    1. Crop Rotation:

    Crop rotation is the practice of growing a variety of crops within same area in sequential seasons. Crop rotation replenishes nitrogen by using green manure in sequence. It also helps improve the soil fertility. With rotating crops on the same land, soil structure gets improved. Crop rotation also enhances the water holding capacity of soil. Well structured soil allows thorough and fast absorption of water. Improved soil structure and water holding capacity help prevent the damage done by heavy rainfall or flooding – some of the most common factors of triggering erosion. It’s quite clear that crop rotation contributes towards a sustainable future.

    2. Soil Management:

    Once the season of cultivation gets over, the soil tend to lose its nutrients and becomes low in quality. However, organic agriculture emphasizes on implementing natural ways to keep the health of soil, human well-being and nature around in a great condition. It doesn’t use harmful chemicals to enrich soil. With soil management, the bacterium that is present in animal waste is utilized. This bacterium makes the soil nutrients much productive and greater in comparison to chemical containing liquids. The good management of soil makes sure that the appropriate mineral elements enter the food.  So, soil management is definitely the best method to improve environmental sustainability, crop productivity, and human health. It also helps increase soil water infiltration and supply nutrients to plants and microbial diversity.

    3. Genetic Modification:

    Living organisms inherit genes from their parents. These traits determine the characteristics that are passed from one generation to the next. A ‘Genetic Modification’ is an organic farming process where a plant, animal, insect or micro-organism genetic make-up has been changed using modern laboratory techniques to produce greater yield.  During this process, a specific gene is selected and implanted into the recipient organism. The cell that receives such an implant, begin producing substances with the desired functions. Basically, genetic modification applies recombinant DNA, molecular cloning, and transformation. With modern biotechnology, it has become way easier and faster to target a specific gene and then alter it through genetic engineering for bringing specific results.

    4. Weed Management:

    What is ‘weed’?In simple language, it’s nothing but the unwanted plant that grows within agricultural fields. Although in organic agriculture, suppressing the weed is more focused rather than eliminating it completely. Weed management helps sustain weed control systems over time. It also maintains farms’ potential to offer productive harvests, while protecting the soil.

    5. Pest Management:

    It’s an eco-friendly method that uses biological, chemical and cultural practices for controlling insect pests in the agricultural production. Pest Management also helps

    increase crop production by reducing damages created by the pests. This kind of method makes use of natural predators or parasites for controlling pests. It promotes spraying with selective pesticides only when the crop requires it contributing towards less usage of chemicals.

    6. Livestock farming:

    Livestock farming is the raising of animals. It contributes towards the family nutrition and supplying animal protein. With the increase in household income, the consumption of protein increases. Livestock farming can also takes place in conjunction with growing vegetables, fruits, milk, and aquaculture and egg production for generating additional income.

    It is concluded that organic farming eliminates the usage of synthetic products for maximizing crop yields. Organic farming focuses on creating a healthier soil. No chemical herbicides or pesticides are applied. Only natural soil enhancement techniques are used to let the plants become resistant to diseases and natural defense system.

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